News from Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Scientific Knowledge Management Area of the Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
     
    Since 2019, the Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has opened a line of research. The Academy conducts research financed by private centers under the following ethical and transparency conditions of: (1) registering a protocol prospectively, (2) freedom of research design, (3) mandatory publication of data (interest or not to the financing party), both through a complete report and through a scientific article, and (4) make a public declaration of conflicts of interest and financing conditions.
     
    As a result of this new line of work, the following investigations have already been carried out:

    As a result of this new line of work, the following investigations have already been carried out:
     

    1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on fad diets in the Spanish population: "DiMilagro" cross-sectional study. Link al informe completo. Link al artículo científico. Summary:

     
    Introduction: The recurrence of fad diets could be due to the difficulty of the population to modify their lifestyles and improve its adherence to therapeutic interventions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices on fad diets in a panel of consumers with socio-demographic characteristics assimilated to the Spanish population. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study through an on-line survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices, not validated and developed according to FAO guidelines, carried out on a sample of individuals between 18 and 65 years of both sexes. Results: 2,604 surveys were valid (50% women). The majority (57.9%) recognized some characteristics of fad diets and were able to identify them (65.8%). 90% of respondents believe that fad diets do not work and their effects are mainly negative (82.6%).  487 people (18.7%) reported having followed one or more fad diets, between 15 days and more than 6 months, used an associated product (56%) from herbalists (52%) and pharmacies (30%), and perceived some of the promised effects (57%), although 33% perceived some minor adverse effect. 73.7% of the total sample believe that fad diets are a problem and 78.6% believe that are dangerous. 82.1% do not feel vulnerability to follow a fad diet. Conclusions: The knowledge on fad diets is medium in the population studied, most perceive them as a problem but do not feel vulnerable or prone to follow a fad diet. However, 22% of the sample followed some kind of fad diets although only 18.7% recognize it. New research is needed to further explore how the population's level of knowledge and attitude towards fad diets is related to their practices.
     

    2. Common practices and beliefs in the preparation of complementary infant feeding in a Spanish sample: a crosssectional study.

    Link al artículo científico. Summary: Introduction: complementary feeding together with breast milk should cover the nutritional needs of children from 6 months onwards. Thus, inadequate dietary practices can lead to poor nutritional intake. The objective of this study was to examine infant food handling and cooking in Spanish households. Methodology: a cross-sectional study was carried out using an online survey in non-institutionalized adults living in Spain who usually prepare infant food for children under 2 years of age. Results: a total of 1,944 people (37.4 ± 6 years; 65.5 % women) answered the survey. Of these, 72 % prepared mainly mashed foods and 21 % used store-bought baby cereals frequently. Zucchini (39 %), chicken (62 %), hake (64 %) and banana (44 %) were the most commonly used foods. Boiling (63 %) and freezing (59 %) were the most widely used culinary and preservation practices. An inappropriate use of salt and some unsafe foods (large fish and chard) was identified, whereas olive oil and eggs were offered below the current nutritional recommendations. Conclusion: the population surveyed preferred to use mashed foods to feed children under 2 years of age. Even though they were aware
    that homemade food is nutritionally better, on certain occasions they offer store-bought baby cereal. Furthermore, some inappropriate feeding practices were detected, highlighting the need to implement nutritional education policies regarding infant food preparation.
     
    3. Adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary pattern, consumption habits and practice of recreational physical activity in the Spanish population: RECREA-DIET a cross-sectional study. Link al informe completo. Artículo científico en revisión. Summary: 

    Introduction: establish the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the level of recreational physical activity (R-PA), is of interest for decision-making. The aim of this research was to describe the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MD) and the level of R-PA in a sample of the Spanish population, establishing their relationship. Material and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study using a self-administered online questionnaire composed of: Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the R-PA domain of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). 5,700 randomly and stratified pre-selected subjects (general population,> 16 years old, both sexes, all Spanish regions, proportional to census data). Statistical analyzes performed, as appropriate: mean, median, standard deviation, interquartile range, Kolmorogrov-Smirnov test), t Student, U Man Withney, χ2 of Person, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis. Results: 4,302 valid interviews. The mean score for adherence to MD was 6.34 (2.00). 70.8% practiced R-PA at least once a week. Moderate intensity prevailed over vigorous or intense (85.3% vs. 61.2%). The level of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) among those who practiced sports tended to be higher (0.5 points; mean: 6.49 [2.00]) than those who did not practice (mean: 5.98 [1.95]). The higher the mean score of adherence to DM, the shorter the sitting time (sedentary behavior). Conclusions: Adherence to MD was low, while the level of R-PA was moderate-high. A high percentage of the population reported having sedentary behaviors. Adherence to the MD pattern tended to be higher among those who performed R-PA (20% PA vs. 10% non-PA), this increase being dependent on the intensity of PA and the amount of time spent.
     
    4. Impact of broccoli consumption on human health: systematic review and meta-analysis. Artículo científico pendiente de enviar a revisión. Summary:

    Background: Cruciferous consumption seems to be associated with a lower risk of suffering from some chronic diseases, however, the role of broccoli consumption is uncertain. Objective: to evaluate the impact of broccoli intake (high or low intake) on different health outcomes. Methods: a systematic review with meta-analysis was carried out, and this report was written following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Eligibility criteria: exposure to broccoli consumption (extracts were excluded) and study design (cases and controls, cohorts and randomized controlled trials) . Information sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Epistemonikos were searched and completed with a snowball search strategy for included studies (last search performed: 03/22/2021). Assessment of risk of bias: the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (cohort and case-control studies) was used. Synthesis: a meta-analysis was carried out with a confidence level of 95% and 3 digits of precision (the index of heterogeneity [I2] was analyzed). Results: of the 733 articles retrieved, 53 were included in the review and 30 in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was considered moderate. The analysis suggests that individuals with some type of cancer would have a lower level of broccoli intake (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.67, n = 17 case-control studies, I2 : 29.68% - low heterogeneity), this association being statistically significant for some specific types of cancer. Broccoli consumption could also be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events (RR: 0.63: 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.80; n = 3 cohort studies; I2: 3.54% - low heterogeneity ) and could reduce constipation and improve intestinal flora (n = 1 randomized controlled trial). Conclusions: The high consumption of broccoli compared to a low or no consumption, could have an impact on the prevention of cancer in general or of some specific types (low quality evidence - cohort studies; and very low quality - cases and controls ) and lower risk of cardiovascular events (low-quality evidence - cohort studies), although there is uncertainty about the strength of the available evidence.
     
    Dr. Giuseppe Russolillo Femenías.
    Dietista-Nutricionista. Doctor por la Universidad de Navarra.
    Presidente, Academia Española de Nutrición y Dietética.
    President, International Confederation of Dietetic Associations (ICDA).
    Secretario, Alianza Iberoamericana de Nutricionistas (AIBAN).
    E-mail:
    g.russolillo@academianutricion.org